EXISTENCE OF THE CREATOR
Shamshad. M. Khan
( Islamic Vision IPCI )
We mortals are finite beings with faculties that are limited in scope and nature. Our hearing for instance responds to sound waves that lie within 200 to 18,000 cycles per second. Our eyes respond to light waves that lie between ultra – violet and infrared within the electromagnetic spectrum. Similarly, our conscious minds are also limited in their comprehension of realities.
Living in this finite world with finite dispositions we can neither see nor comprehend the Infinite Being, The Creator. Looking around us however, we see created things that clearly point to a Creator, Designer and Sustainer. As we seem to turn to science for solutions these days, let us see how science approaches this problem.
Science is by its definition concerned with the realities of observable things; it is based on objective priciples involving observation of and experiment with physical phenomena.
Science therefore resorts to direct argument to prove the existence of things like atoms etc. However, this has now changed as the sub atomic particles can neither be seen nor observed but their existence is recognised by the effect they produce. Elements and actions that we can not see are readily accepted as being essential to life such as light, gravity, magnetism, radiowaves, electromagnetic waves, etc. According to “The Black Hole” theory only 3 per cent of matter is observable. 97 per cent of it we can neither see nor observe. Science therefore now accepts indirect argument as valid to explain things, that is, by the effect they produce.
Religion is concerned with the realities of truth. Since the Creator is a Spiritual Being and can not be seen by mortal eyes, His existence is proved by His manifestations around us i.e. the created things. Religion therefore also uses indirect argument or inferential reasoning to prove the existence of the Creator.
THE CREATION OF
THE UNIVERSE AND
Until quite recently philosophers believed that the universe is eternal and therefore is itself a kind of god.
This view has now become obsolete, however, in view of the latest scientific discoveries. World renowned scientist, Stephen hawking, for instance, has said that the most fantastic discovery of our time is that the universe is expanding. This together with the phenomenon of the big bang, now accepted as an established scientific fact, proves that the universe had a beginning and will one day end. The universe therefore is not eternal and is not god.
These two facts are mentioned in the Holy Quran which was revealed over fourteen hundred years ago:-
“…heavens and the earth were (once) one single entity, which We then parted asunder…”
(The Holy Quran 21:47)
“And it is We who have built the universe with (Our creative ) power and ,verily it is We who are steadily expanding it.”
(The Holy Quran 51:47)
The big bang was not, however, an ordinary big bang. It consisted of infinite gravity and zero volume (nothing) and was so precise that if it had been one part in a billion, billion times more intense, matter would have scattered not to ever join again and if less intense it would have collapsed almost immediately. It was not therefore a coincidence.
God Almighty creates whatever He wills from nothing (The Holy Quran 35:1)
William Penrose, a colleague of Stephen Hawking, carried out exhaustive research and arrived at the conclusion that the chances of the universe coming into existence by accident or by chance are 10 to the power of 123. Considering there are estimated to be only 10 to the power of 78 atoms in the universe, these are indeed colossal odds.
The late Sir Fred Hoyle another world renowned scientist and his contemporary professor Wickramsinghe, both ardent atheists carried out researches independently into the possibility of life having begun on earth spontaneously.
They were so shocked by the final result of their researches; published in the form of a book entitled ‘Evolution from Space’ that they both had to revise their thinking. They arrived at the same conclusion that the odds against life having ignited accidentally on earth were staggering: in mathematical jargon 10 to the power 40,000 . In scientific terms, odds exceeding 10 to the power of 50 are generally considered impossibility.
Sir Fred Hoyle said that to say that the universe has come in to existence coincidentally, is like saying that a hurricane went over a junk yard and left behind a perfectly assembled Boeing jumbo aircraft ready to take off.
THE UNIVERSE, SOLAR
SYSTEM AND EARTH
At macroscopic level we find that the universe (there are theories indicating many interlinking or parallel universes; the Holy Quran also points to many universes) consists of billions of galaxies and only about one third of the universe has thus far been observed by man. Each galaxy consists of an average of 300 billion stars. Our Milky Way galaxy consists of approximately 200 billion stars. It would take one hundred thousand light years travelling at the speed of light (186 thousand miles per second) to travel from one end of it to the other. The size and distances are awesome.
Recent discoveries show that “little bangs” are responsible for the formation 0f solar systems, pointing to the conclusion that there is indeed a designer who planned the creation of the universe in intricate detail.
Our solar system consists of the sun and nine planets. Some planets also have satellites or moons orbiting around them. Our earth spins round its axis at 1670 km per hour. It orbits around the sun at 108,000 km per hour.The sun ,together with its planets, orbits around the centre of the galaxy at 720,000 km per hour while the velocity of the Milky Way galaxy itself is 950,000 km per hour in space. The larger the mass, the greater the speed; it is truly amazing.
These movements are obsolutely precise. No fuel is required, no noise, no pollution…Who has created it all and Who is maintaining it?
We read in the Holy Quran that Allah,God Almighty, has created it all and indeed He is maintaining it, and that all heavenly bodies swim along their predetermined orbits, (The Holy Quran 2:255, 6:101, 14:10, 21:33, 36:40).
When we explore the universe we encounter numerous examples of order, balance and equilibrium. The earth is itself designed as an abode for humankind and other living things. It has many special features to make it possible for us to survive.
PRECISE DESIGN AND
The distance of the earth from the sun, the inclination of its axis to its orbit, the rotational speed of the earth around its axis and around the sun, balances in the atmosphere, gravity, the functions of the oceans and mountains on the earth, the characteristics of living beings and the interactions between all these are a few examples of the ecological balances.
When the earth is compared with other planets, it becomes even more evident that it is especially designed for man (although the Holy Quran points to there being numerous planets in the universe with inhabitants) (The Holy Quran 42:29, 65:12). The design and precise quantity of water, the water cycle, the composition of gases in the air, the nitrogen balance and bacteria etc… The Holy Quran points out that everything is created in due measure, (The Holy Quran 15:19).
Moreover the core of the earth contains heavy magnetic elements like iron and nickel. The core has two structures, the solid inner core and the fluid outer core. The outer layer floats on top of the inner core, creating a magnetic field which reaches the outer layer of the atmosphere. This magnetic field shields the earth against the dangers from space.
One of the most serious dangers is from the ‘solar winds ‘. Apart from heat, light and other radiation, the sun sends to the earth a wind made up of protons and electrons moving at a speed of 1.5 million Kilometres per hour. When the solar winds in the form of a rain of particles run into this magnetic field at a distance of 40,000 miles from the earth, they decompose and flow round this field. This shield is designed to block harmful radiation reaching the surface of the earth.
Many meteorites also fall on the earth but the vast majority do not affect the earth as the atmosphere exerts very strong friction on falling meteors causes them to burn up. We are reminded in the Holy Quran:
“We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from Our signs” ,
( The Holy Quran 21:32 )
The earth consists of many layers, the top layer is called the crust. It has a tendency to slide over the layers beneath. This is controlled by the role of the mountains. The mountains are one third above ground and two thirds below the surface penetrating into other layers. This prevents the top layer from sliding.
“…have We not made the earth a resting place (for you) and mountains as pegs?”
(The Holy Quran 78:6-7
and “…it is Allah who made the earth a stable home for you and the sky a canopy.”
(The Holy Quran 40:64)
“He has created the skies without any support that you could see, and halest it sway with you…”
(The Holy Quran 31:10)
The human body is immensely complex in design and intricate in formation. If we tried to make a digestive system for example, it would probably take equipment the size of a city to make the blood that our body needs and even then the quality might not be as good. Our lungs, if spread out, would occupy the total surface area of a tennis court.
There are over 100,000 electro-chemical actions/reactions going on in our brains every second. Our brain is making decisions to maintain the body. Nobody fully understands how the major part of our brain works.
We have approximately 100 trillion cells (no one knows how many exactly) in our body. There are four million in every cubic centimetre, while six million are dying every second and are being replaced by new ones. Nobody fully comprehends the organisational system of the cells. The miraculous birth of the baby, sophisticated formation of DNA with its chromosomes, the miraculous designs of the various organs of the body are worthy of consideration but are outside the scope of this discussion.
The Holy Quran expounds:
“We shell show them signs in the distant horizon and within themselves…”
(The Holy Quran 41:53 )
“And on earth there are signs (of God’s existence visible) to all who are endowed with certainty, just as there are signs within your own selves; can you not then see?”
(The Holy Quran 51:21-22)
Modern day philosophers tell us that morality in man is built-in.
The Holy Quran 91:7-8, points out that God Almighty has planted within us morality, the criteria for distinguishing between right and wrong.. (This could be our conscience that can be blackened if we continue to act wrongfully, persistently and without repenting). Allah the Most exalted commands us to seek forgiveness. And 7:172 reminds us that we all testified in our spiritual state before we were born that God Amighty is our Lord, Creator, Cherisher and Sustainer.
The Holy Quran points out :-
“It is Allah Who causes the seed-grain and the date-stone to split and sprout. He causes the living to issue from the dead, and He is the One to cause the dead to issue from the living.
That is Allah : Then how are you deluded from the truth? He it is that cleaves the day-break (from the dark) : He makes the night for rest and tranquillity, and the sun and the moon for reckoning (of time ): such is the judgment and ordering of (him), the Exalted in power, the
Omniscient. It is He Who makes the stars ( as beacons ) for you, that you may guide yourselves, with their help, through the dark spaces of land and sea: We detail our signs for people who know. It is He who has produced you from a single person, here is a place of sojourn and a place of departure: We detail our signs for people who understand. It is He Who sends down rain from the skies: with it We produce vegetation of all kinds: from some We produce green ( crops ), out of which We produce grain, heaped up ( at harvest ); out of date-palm and its sheaths (or spathes ) ( come ) clusters of dates hanging low and near: and ( then there are ) gardens of grapes, and olives, pomegranates, each similar ( in kind ) yet different ( in variety ) : when they begin to bear fruit, feast your eyes with the fruit and the ripeness thereof.
Behold! In these things there are signs for people who believe.”
(The Holy Quran 6:95-99)
‘Seed grain’ and ‘date-stone’ refer to two processes of plant growth without which life on earth for humans and animals would not be possible.
In order for the seed to split and sprout and grow, numerous conditions have to be satisfied. The soil, heat of the sun with apt intensity, the air with correct composition of gases, the water and equally importantly bacteria, organisms and micro organisms to fertilise the soil, all must first exist in the right balances in order for it all to happen.
Then there is the ripening phase that gives the fruits and herbs flavour, taste and fragrance through a process of photosynthesis . Nobody knows how it works exactly.
We are dependent on food . We have been blessed with taste buds to enjoy food and so God Almighty has provided us with so many different types of fruits , vegetation , herbs , spices and species to satisfy all our needs ( The Holy Quran 6:141-142 )
Surely it cannot all be due to chances , coincidences upon coincidences upon coincidences , all with precise order , balance and equilibrium .
It is indeed the Creator who has designed nature and all physical laws and has made everything subservient to the gem of His creation, the human beings, for them to use and benefit from all created things.
WHO CREATED GOD ?
When we say God ( with a capital G_ ) we refer to the uncreated Eternal Being , the Supreme Entity, the Creator of all ; Whom Moses in Hebrew called Eloha, Jesus in Aramaic called Alaha and Muhammad in Arabic called Allah.
He is the Originator of the primal matter, the Cause of all the causes. There is nothing like Unto Him ( The Holy Quran 42:11).
We are not talking about some created god (note the small ‘g’ ). Often people who pose this question are the ones who claim that the universe and nature are uncreated. They follow an illogical argument. In fact the scientists today are confronted with the question as to where have all these natural physical laws come from. They are compelled to accept the conclusion that there must be a Supreme Intelligence Who must have planned it all and Who has the power to maintain it all.
“To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a thing, He merely wills it to be and it is…”
(The Holy Quran 2:17)
The Holy Quran states:-
“Verily, your Sustainer is God, Who has created the heavens and the earth, in six aeons, and is established on the throne Of His Almightiness governing all that exist.There is none that could intercede with Him unless He grants leave thereof.Thus is God, your sustainer: worship, therefore Him(alone): will you not, then, keep this in mind ?
Unto Him you must all return: this is, in truth God ‘s promise-for, behold He creates ( man ) in the first instance, and then brings him forth anew to the end that He may reward with equity all who attain to faith and do righteous deeds; whereas for those who are bent on denying the truth there is in store a draught of burning despair and grievous suffering because of their persistent refusal to acknowledge the truth.
He it is who has made the sun a ( source of ) radiant light and the moon a light (reflected ), and has determined for it phases so that you might know how to compute the years and to measure (time). None of this has God created without (an inner) truth.
Clearly does He spell out messages unto people of (innate) knowledge: for, verily, in the alternating of night and day, and in all that God has created in the heavens and on earth there are messages indeed for people who are conscious of Him!”
( The Holy Quran 10:3-6)
“How can you reject the faith in Allah?-
Seeing that ye were without life,
and He gave you life:
then He will cause you to die,
and will again bring you to life:
and again to Him will ye return.”
( The Holy Quran 2 : 28 )